Tag: locative



 Listen to the song and fill in the gaps with correct words. Do you recognise those forms?  That’s miejscownik (locative) case. Complete the second exercise to revise miejscownik’s endings.
Poparzeni Kawą “Szukam Cię wszędzie”


If the exercise doesn’t work you may find it here.

If the exercise doesn’t work you may find it here.


More exercises you may find here.



Many students struggle to remember names of the months in Polish as they sound nothing like in any European language. We didn’t adopt Roman names, like many other countries. Polish names of the months are related to the farmer’s calendar through the year and changes of the seasons.


Learn the meaning of the names:


styczeń – from the verb stykać (to meet, to abut); that’s the time when the old year meets the new year
luty – from the Old-Polish adjective luty (frosty, freezing)
marzec – the origin is not clear, could be from the verb marznąć (to get cold) as it is still a winter time or from the verb rozmarzać (to defrost) as the first signs of spring appear then
kwiecień – from the word kwiat (flower), the time when flowers bloom
maj – from the name of Roman goddess Maia who embodies concept of growth
czerwiec – from the word czerwony (red) as in this month fields get red from the blooming poppies or from the word czerw, which describes a larve of a bee. People used to pick the larves up, dry them and use to produce a red pigment
lipiec – from the name of the tree that blooms in this month – lipa (linden)
sierpień – from the name of a tool sierp (sickle) used for cutting the hay or grass
wrzesień – from the name of the plant ‘wrzos’ (heather) that blooms beautifully in this month
październik – from the word paździerz (wooden dry parts remained after flaxing) in the past in that time of the year people make clothes and the wooden waste could be seen all over the fields
listopad – from the words liście (leaves) and padać (to fall); the time when the leaves fall
grudzień – from the word gruda (frozen and hardened piece of the ground)


On culture.polishsite.us you may read: some of the months names are similar to several Slavic lanuages for instance ‘listopad’, which is 11th month, has the same name for October in Croatian and Slovenian and November in Czech. The most similarities are between Polish and Czech languages. In Czech ‘kveten’ is the fifth month but its name resembles Polish April’s name – ‘kwiecień’, ‘cerven’ for Czech May is similar to Polish ‘czerwiec’ for June and ‘srpen’ to Polish August (sierpień).

Let’s practise some grammar

Complete the exercise and learn names of the months in miejscownik (locative)

If the exercise doesn’t work you may find it here



Polish belongs to the group of inflected languages, which means that words change their forms and endings depend on their position in a sentence. The cases describe the position of nouns, pronouns and adjectives, and signalize the meaning. In English the word order in a sentence has a similar function to the Polish cases. In the sentence: Tom has a cat we know that Tom is the subject and cat is the direct object. We know it because in English the subject goes before a verb and the object after. The same sentence in Polish can have few variants:
Tom ma kota./ Kota ma Tom/  Ma Tom kota./ Ma kota Tom./ Kota Tom ma./ Tom kota ma.
They all mean the same. In Polish word order doesn’t determinate the meaning the way it does in English. It’s the a added to the word that shows kot is the object of the sentence.
Polish use cases to express many functions. Some of these roles are crucial for everyday situations, so learning Polish you should familiarize yourself with the cases and their functions as soon as it is possible.


Polish cases and their functions


MIANOWNIK (nominative)

subject of a sentence e.g. Ania je obiad., Ona ma psa.
after ‘to’ (categorisation) e.g. Kasia to nowa studentka., Filip to przystojny mężczyzna.
– to express a comparison (after the word ‘jak’) e.g. On jest głodny jak wilk.



BIERNIK (accusative)

object in affirmative sentences e.g Mam brata.; Czytam książkę.
with the following prepositions: przez, po (as ‘to pick up’), na (with verbs of motion) e.g. przejść przez ulicę, iść po kawę, iść na kolację
expressing the time: with days of the week (w poniedziałek, w środę) and in certain phrases (cały dzień, całą dobę, za godzinę)


DOPEŁNIACZ (genitive)

to express negation e.g. Nie mam książki., Nie lubię sera żółtego.
to express ownership e.g. samochód mojego brata, koleżanka mojej dziewczyny, ściana domu
with specified and unspecified quantity e.g. kubek herbaty, kawałek ciasta, dużo pracy
with the following prepositions: niedaleko (near), bez (without), dla (for), do (to, into), od (from), koło/obok (near, by), podczas (during), wzdłuż (along), z/ze (from) e.g. bez mleka,  dla mojej mamy,  niedaleko parku, do pracy, koło samochodu, podczas wykładu, z Polski
–  with certain verbs expressing absence or lack of something: szukać (to look for, to search), potrzebować (to need), uczyć się (to learn), zapomnieć (to forget), życzyć (to wish), oczekiwać (to expect), słuchać (to listen) and few more e.g. uczę się języka polskiego, szukam mojej książki, życzę Ci miłego dnia, słucham muzyki, potrzebuję nowego samochodu, zapomniałem portfela


NARZĘDNIK (instrumental)

to express professions, relationships or nationalities (combined with the verb ‘być’) e.g. On jest studentem.
combined with the preposition ‘z’ (with) e.g. kawa z mlekiem
to express the tool or instrument you use e.g. piszę długopisem, jadę autobusem
in combination with several verbs e.g. interesuję się sportem
with the following prepositions: nad, przed, pod, za, między e.g. nad morzem, pod stołem


MIEJSCOWNIK (locative)

after following prepositions: w (in), na (on), po (after, on), o (about), przy (next to) e.g. w Polsce, na uniwersytecie, po obiedzie, o pracy, przy domu
to express location, time, purpose


CELOWNIK (dative)

in impersonal phrases like: miło mi, zimno mi, gorąco Ci, dziecku jest niedobrze
to express a recipient e.g. Pomogę ci., Daj dziecku zabawkę.

with certain verbs: przeszkadzać (to disturb), pomagać (to help), zazdrościć (to envy), wierzyć (to believe) e.g. Nie przeszkadzaj ojcu., Pomagam mamie., Zazdroszczę jej., Wierzę ci!
after following prepositions: dzięki (thanks to), przeciwko (against), wbrew (against, despite, in spite of)


WOŁACZ (vocative)

to address someone
How can you remember it all – the usage and the endings? Well, it takes time and a lot of practise. The best idea is to find few examples, including our favourite food, familiar names or hobbies, to form short sentences or phrases to learn. Good luck!