Tag: grammar

VERBS USED WITH GENITIVE, DATIVE AND INSTRUMENTAL CASES

VERBS USED WITH GENITIVE, DATIVE AND INSTRUMENTAL CASES

As you know most of the Polish verbs require accusative case after (if it’s a constative) or genitive in negation. However, some verbs are followed by one specific case no matter what happens with the verb. Here are lists of the most common verbs used with genitive, dative and instrumental cases.

verbs used with the genitive case

bać się (to be afraid of), brakować (to lack), nienawidzić (to hate), odmawiać (to refuse, to decline), pilnować (to look after, to watch over), potrzebować (to need), próbować (to try), słuchać (to listen to),  szukać (to search, to look for, to seek), uczyć (się) (to teach/ to learn), używać (to use), wstydzić się (to be ashamed of), wymagać (to require, to demand), zabraniać (to forbid), zapomnieć (to forget), zazdrościć (to envy), życzyć (to wish)

examples:
Od miesiąca szukam nowej pracy.
Słuchasz mnie?
Ewa zabrania dzieciom oglądania telewizji po 20:00. (note that the verbs zabraniać requires two cases: genitive for the direct object ‘oglądanie’ (what does she forbid?) and dative for the indirect object ‘dzieci’ (to whom does she forbid it?))
Życzę Wam szczęścia! (same as the verb ‘zabraniać’, the verb ‘życzyć’ requires genitive for the direct object and dative for the indirect object)
Zazdroszczę ci talenu! (genitive for the direct object and dative for the indirect object)

 

verbs used with the dative case

dziękować (to thank), kibicować (to cheer, to support), podobać się (to appeal to), pomagać (to help), przyglądać się (to peer), smakować (to taste good), szkodzić (to harm), ufać (to trust), wierzyć (to believe)

examples:
Nowy dom bardzo podoba się rodzicom.
Palenie szkodzi zdrowiu.
Kibicujemy naszej drużynie.

 

verbs used with the instrumental case

być (to be), zostać (to become), cieszyć się (to enjoy), interesować się (to be interested with sth), jechać (to go, to travel by), kierować (to lead), opiekować się (to look after), pasjonować się (to be passionate about sth), stresować się (to be stressed about sth), zająć się (to take care, to deal with sth), zarazić się (to get infected with), zmęczyć się (to get tired from)

examples:
Do pracy zawsze jeżdżę samochodem.
Marta od dziecka chciała zostać naukowcem.
Bardzo stresuję się dzisiejszą rozmową kwalifikacyjną.

 

let’s practise

If the exercises is not working, you may find it here

 

Check our previous post to learn more about Polish cases

PRACTISE POLISH WITH A SONG – VERB CONJUGATION

PRACTISE POLISH WITH A SONG – VERB CONJUGATION

Learning grammar doesn’t have to be boring! Are you, like me, a fan of The Lion King (Król Lew)? 🙂 Listen to the Polish version of one of the songs from the film and practise Polish verb conjugation. Below the exercise you will find a list of the verbs from the song and their conjugation types. Good luck!

If the exercise is not working you may find it here.

Verbs from the song:
przychodzić (-ę, -isz) – to come
posyłać (-m, -sz) – to send
spełniać się (-m, -sz) – to be fulfilled, to come true
czuć (czuj-ę, czuj-esz) – to feel
przybywać (-m, -sz) – to come (used mostly in literature and poetry)
wiedzieć (wie-m, wie-sz) – to know
wirować (wiruj-ę, wiruj-esz) – to spin
mieć (ma-m, ma-sz) – to have
odnajdować (odnajduj-ę, odnajduj-esz)/forma perfective odnaleźć – to find, to rediscover
trwać (-m, -sz) – to last

 

Interesting fact!
In the lyrics you can find the word swe which is a version of the posessive pronoun swoje. Feminine and neuter pronouns: moja/moje, twoja/twoje and swoja/swoje have shorter versions ma/me, twa/twe, swa/swe which are used in very formal texts or poetry.

 

If you like the post check also Learn Polish with a song – miejscownik case (locative)

60 DAYS WITH POLISH – JOIN OUR LANGUAGE CHALLENGE

60 DAYS WITH POLISH – JOIN OUR LANGUAGE CHALLENGE

Join our FIRST FREE POLISH LANGUAGE CHALLENGE!

8 topics | 60 days | 30 minutes a day

WHEN:

start: 8th of March

WHAT WILL YOU GET?

📈 you will create a studying routine
📈you will maintain your motivation
📈 you will break the speaking barrier and crash the shyness
📈you will revise or learn new vocabulary on the most popular conversation topics

FOR WHOM IS THE CHALLENGE?

For Upper Beginners and Intermediate students. The Challenge has two levels.

HOW DOES IT WORK?

📚 Sign up for the challenge here https://goo.gl/t1cKqA

📚Record a simple, spontanous video to set your starting point (It can like ours or simpler but in Polish ofc. (Link below)) .

📚 Upload it in our group https://goo.gl/JTHNxP . Later you will be asked to record a video/ audio or write a short text every week (the choice is yours and it’s not obligatory but recommended!)

📚 For 60 days you are going to get e-mails with exercises and tasks. Short ones. Max 30 minutes a day of work. The exercises will cover 8 interesting topics.

EXTRA:

We are in it with you. I am learning Romanian and Paulina – Egyptian Arabic. We are going to record videos and study 30 minutes every day just like you do! Here is Paulina’s video : https://youtu.be/hXBlzcLm19c

DO, Z CZY NA – LET’S PRACTICE POLISH PREPOSITIONS

DO, Z CZY NA – LET’S PRACTICE POLISH PREPOSITIONS

How well do you know Polish prepositions? Complete the exercise and find out!
If you still struggle with it, you may read about Polish prepositions and their usage here.

 

UWAGA! Preposition ‘po’ can mean ‘after’ or ‘on’ but is also used as ‘to get, collect or pick something/ someone’

po + miejscownik (locative) = after
Po obiedzie pójdziemy na spacer. – After the dinner we will go for a walk.

Kot chodzi po stole. – The cat is walking on the table.

po+ biernik = to get, collect or pick up sometning/someone’
Jadę na dworzec po moją siostrę. – I’m going to the station to pick up my sister.

Powodzenia! 🙂

 

If the exercise doesn’t work, you may find it here.

 

 

 

 

SPRZĄTAJĄC, PAMIĘTAJ O PRASOWANIU – RZECZOWNIKI ODCZASOWNIKOWE I IMIESŁÓW

SPRZĄTAJĄC, PAMIĘTAJ O PRASOWANIU – RZECZOWNIKI ODCZASOWNIKOWE I IMIESŁÓW

Look at the sentence in the post’s title. Do you understand it? It contains two interesting forms called rzeczownik odczasownikowy (prasowanie, a noun discribing action of ironing) and imiesłów (sprzątając, which can be translate as ‘while cleaning’).

How to create and use both of the forms?

 

rzeczownik odczasownikowy

 

It’s an equivalent of English gerund form. Although it might resemble a verb, it’s a noun – is used and declied like all nouns.

Look at the exemples:
Gotowanie jest relaksujące. – Cooking is relaxing.
Nie lubię pływaniaI don’t like swimming.
Muszę kupić proszek do pieczenia.I need to buy baking powder
Pamiętaj o zrobieniu zakupów. – Remember about shopping.

To form rzeczownik odczasownikowy, three endings are used
nie – with verbs that end in -ać and -eć e.g. pływać : pływanie, gotować : gotowanie, myśleć : myślenie, pisać : pisanie
enie – with verbs that end in -ić and -yć e.g. chodzić : chodzenie, mówić : mówienie, uczyć : uczenie, tańczyć : tańczenie
cie – with short verbs and those that end in -ąć e.g. pić : picie, myć : mycie, zamknąć : zamknięcie

imiesłów czynny

It’s an adverbial participle that express a simultanious action and carries the meaning while …-ing
e.g.
Wracając do pracy spotkałem starego kolegę. – Coming back from work I met an old friend.
Gotując lubię słuchać muzyki. – While cooking I like listen to music.
Będąc w Krakowie, odwiedzi koleżankę. – While being in Kraków, she will visit her friend.

Imiesłów is created simply by adding -c to the 3rd person plural form (present tense) e.g czytają : czytając, pracują : pracując, idą : idąc. The exeption is the verb być which uses the future stem – będą : będąc.

Imiesłów is indeclinable.

 

let’s practice

link to the exercise

answers

DOBRY CZY DOBRZE? DUŻY CZY DUŻO? – POLISH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

DOBRY CZY DOBRZE? DUŻY CZY DUŻO? – POLISH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

Two forms are quite often confused by Polish learners, as they look very similar – adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives (e.g. długi, stary, ładny, dobry) refer to nouns, describing them and are inflected for cases, numbers and genders – exactly like nouns. What are adverbs and what is their place in a sentence?

Adverbs (długo, staro, ładnie, dobrze) are used to modify adjectives or verbs and they never change their forms.

Dobrze wyglądasz. – You look well.

On mówi bardzo wolno. – He speaks very slowly.

Jak długo czekasz na mnie? – How long have you been waiting for me?

 

Adverbs are created from adjectives by adding the endings -e or -o. Here’s a list of the most common adverbs:

 

LET’S PRACTISE

 

If the exercise doesn’t work, you may find it here.

 

JAK? GDZIE? DLACZEGO? – ASKING QUESTIONS IN POLISH

JAK? GDZIE? DLACZEGO? – ASKING QUESTIONS IN POLISH

Learning the language you probably got used to answering questions, but what about asking? In Polish it’s very easy! Questions are formed by adding the special question words at the beginning of an affirmative sentence. What question words do we use? Below you may find few the most important.

 

ASKING ABOUT PLACES

 

Gdzie jest moja książka?Where is my book?
Dokąd idziesz?Where are you going to?; most people however would say Gdzie idziesz?
Skąd wiesz?How do you know it? (lit. Where do you know it from?)
Przepraszam, którędy na Rynek Główny?Excuse me, which way to the Main Square?

ASKING ABOUT TIME

 

Kiedy jedziesz na wakacje?When are you going for a holiday?
O której godzinie zaczyna się film?At what time does the film start?
Jak długo mieszkasz w Polsce?How long have you been living in Poland?
Od kiedy uczysz się polskiego?Since when are you learning Polish?
Do kiedy zostajesz w Krakowie?Until when are you staying in Kraków?

 

ASKING ABOUT THINGS

 

Jaki film lubisz?What film do you like?
Jaka jest twoja siostra?What is your sister like?
Jakie auto masz?What car do you have?
Który sok wolisz, pomarańczowy czy jabłkowy?Which juice do you prefer orange or apple?
Która książka jest twoja?Which book is yours?
Które wino wolisz, białe czy czerwone?Which wine do you prefer white or red?

Asking about things and people by using the words KTO and CO is a bit more complex as both pronouns change their forms depends on the case. You may read about it here.

 

ASKING ABOUT PURPOSES, REASONS AND WAYS

 

Ile kosztuje ten sweter?How much does the sweater cost?
Dlaczego nie jesteś w pracy?Why aren’t you at work?
Po co to kupiłeś?Why did you buy it? What did you buy it for?
Jak długo trwa ten film?How long is the film? How long does the film last?
Z jakiego powodu nie możesz pojechać na konferencję?For what reason can’t you go to the conference?

 

LET’S PRACITSE

If the exercise doesn’t work, you may find it here

 

 

VERBS OF MOTION: IŚĆ, CHODZIĆ, JECHAĆ I JEŹDZIĆ

VERBS OF MOTION: IŚĆ, CHODZIĆ, JECHAĆ I JEŹDZIĆ

Polish motion verbs: iść, chodzić, jechać i jeździć confuse many students. Do you know how to use them correctly?

The verb iść means ‘to go’ in general (e.g. Idę do kina – I’m going to cinema) or ‘to go on foot’ (e.g. Idę na spacer – I’m going for a walk) and expresses one time action. The same meaning has the verb chodzić but expresses rutine e.g. Chodzę do kina co tydzień – I go to cinema every week; Chodzę na spacer codziennie – I go for a walk every day.
The verb jechać means ‘to go by vehicle’ and expresses one time action e.g. Jedziemy do Polski – We’re going (traveling) to Poland whereas jeździć expresses rutine e.g. Jeździmy do Polski co rok – We go (travel) to Poland every year.

 

Conjugation of the verbs: iść, chodzić, jechać and jeździć

 

Let’s practice

If the exercise doesn’t work you may find it here