Tag: grammar

60 DAYS WITH POLISH – JOIN OUR LANGUAGE CHALLENGE

60 DAYS WITH POLISH – JOIN OUR LANGUAGE CHALLENGE

Join our FIRST FREE POLISH LANGUAGE CHALLENGE!

8 topics | 60 days | 30 minutes a day

WHEN:

start: 8th of March

WHAT WILL YOU GET?

馃搱 you will create a studying routine
馃搱you will maintain your motivation
馃搱 you will break the speaking barrier and crash the shyness
馃搱you will revise or learn new vocabulary on the most popular conversation topics

FOR WHOM IS THE CHALLENGE?

For Upper Beginners and Intermediate students. The Challenge has two levels.

HOW DOES IT WORK?

馃摎 Sign up for the challenge here https://goo.gl/t1cKqA

馃摎Record a simple, spontanous video to set your starting point (It can like ours or simpler but in Polish ofc. (Link below)) .

馃摎 Upload it in our group https://goo.gl/JTHNxP . Later you will be asked to record a video/ audio or write a short text every week (the choice is yours and it’s not obligatory but recommended!)

馃摎 For 60 days you are going to get e-mails with exercises and tasks. Short ones. Max 30 minutes a day of work. The exercises will cover 8 interesting topics.

EXTRA:

We are in it with you. I am learning Romanian and Paulina – Egyptian Arabic. We are going to record videos and study 30 minutes every day just like you do! Here is Paulina’s video : https://youtu.be/hXBlzcLm19c

DO, Z CZY NA – LET’S PRACTICE POLISH PREPOSITIONS

DO, Z CZY NA – LET’S PRACTICE POLISH PREPOSITIONS

How well do you know Polish prepositions? Complete the exercise and find out!
If you still struggle with it, you may read about Polish prepositions and their usage here.

 

UWAGA! Preposition ‘po’ can mean ‘after’ or ‘on’ but is also used as ‘to get, collect or pick something/ someone’

po + miejscownik (locative) = after
Po obiedzie p贸jdziemy na spacer. – After the dinner we will go for a walk.

Kot chodzi po stole. – The cat is walking on the table.

po+ biernik = to get, collect or pick up sometning/someone’
Jad臋 na dworzec po moj膮 siostr臋. – I’m going to the station to pick up my sister.

Powodzenia! 馃檪

 

If the exercise doesn’t work, you may find it here.

 

 

 

 

SPRZ膭TAJ膭C, PAMI臉TAJ O PRASOWANIU – RZECZOWNIKI ODCZASOWNIKOWE I IMIES艁脫W

SPRZ膭TAJ膭C, PAMI臉TAJ O PRASOWANIU – RZECZOWNIKI ODCZASOWNIKOWE I IMIES艁脫W

Look at the sentence in the post’s title. Do you understand it? It contains two interesting forms called rzeczownik odczasownikowy (prasowanie, a noun discribing action of ironing) and imies艂贸w (sprz膮taj膮c, which can be translate as ‘while cleaning’).

How to create and use both of the forms?

 

rzeczownik odczasownikowy

 

It’s an equivalent of English gerund form. Although it might resemble a verb, it’s a noun – is used and declied like all nouns.

Look at the exemples:
Gotowanie jest relaksuj膮ce. – Cooking is relaxing.
Nie lubi臋 p艂ywaniaI don’t like swimming.
Musz臋 kupi膰 proszek do pieczenia.I need to buy baking powder
Pami臋taj o zrobieniu zakup贸w. – Remember about shopping.

To form rzeczownik odczasownikowy, three endings are used
nie – with verbs that end in -a膰 and -e膰 e.g. p艂ywa膰 : p艂ywanie, gotowa膰 : gotowanie, my艣le膰 : my艣lenie, pisa膰 : pisanie
enie – with verbs that end in -i膰 and -y膰 e.g. chodzi膰 : chodzenie, m贸wi膰 : m贸wienie, uczy膰 : uczenie, ta艅czy膰 : ta艅czenie
cie – with short verbs and those that end in -膮膰 e.g. pi膰 : picie, my膰 : mycie, zamkn膮膰 : zamkni臋cie

imies艂贸w czynny

It’s an adverbial participle that express a simultanious action and carries the meaning while …-ing
e.g.
Wracaj膮c do pracy spotka艂em starego koleg臋. – Coming back from work I met an old friend.
Gotuj膮c lubi臋 s艂ucha膰 muzyki. – While cooking I like listen to music.
B臋d膮c w Krakowie, odwiedzi kole偶ank臋. – While being in Krak贸w, she will visit her friend.

Imies艂贸w is created simply by adding -c to the 3rd person plural form (present tense) e.g czytaj膮 : czytaj膮c, pracuj膮 : pracuj膮c, id膮 : id膮c. The exeption is the verb by膰 which uses the future stem – b臋d膮 : b臋d膮c.

Imies艂贸w is indeclinable.

 

let’s practice

link to the exercise

answers

DOBRY CZY DOBRZE? DU呕Y CZY DU呕O? – POLISH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

DOBRY CZY DOBRZE? DU呕Y CZY DU呕O? – POLISH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

Two forms are quite often confused by Polish learners, as they look very similar – adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives (e.g. d艂ugi, stary, 艂adny, dobry) refer to nouns, describing them and are inflected for cases, numbers and genders – exactly like nouns. What are adverbs and what is their place in a sentence?

Adverbs (d艂ugo, staro, 艂adnie, dobrze) are used to modify adjectives or verbs and they never change their forms.

Dobrze wygl膮dasz. – You look well.

On m贸wi bardzo wolno. – He speaks very slowly.

Jak d艂ugo czekasz na mnie? – How long have you been waiting for me?

 

Adverbs are created from adjectives by adding the endings -e or -o. Here’s a list of the most common adverbs:

 

LET’S PRACTISE

 

If the exercise doesn’t work, you may find it here.

 

JAK? GDZIE? DLACZEGO? – ASKING QUESTIONS IN POLISH

JAK? GDZIE? DLACZEGO? – ASKING QUESTIONS IN POLISH

Learning the language you probably got used to answering questions, but what about asking? In Polish聽it’s very easy! Questions are formed by adding the special question words at the beginning of an affirmative sentence. What question words do we use? Below you may find few the most important.

 

ASKING ABOUT PLACES

 

Gdzie jest moja ksi膮偶ka?Where is my book?
Dok膮d idziesz?Where are you going to?; most people however would say Gdzie idziesz?
Sk膮d wiesz?How do you know it? (lit. Where do you know it from?)
Przepraszam, kt贸r臋dy na Rynek G艂贸wny?Excuse me, which way to the Main Square?

ASKING ABOUT TIME

 

Kiedy jedziesz na wakacje?When are you going for a holiday?
O kt贸rej godzinie zaczyna si臋 film?At what time does the film start?
Jak d艂ugo mieszkasz w Polsce?How long have you been living in Poland?
Od kiedy uczysz si臋 polskiego?Since when are you learning Polish?
Do kiedy zostajesz w Krakowie?Until when are you staying in Krak贸w?

 

ASKING ABOUT THINGS

 

Jaki film lubisz?What film do you like?
Jaka jest twoja siostra?What is your sister like?
Jakie auto masz?What car do you have?
Kt贸ry sok wolisz, pomara艅czowy czy jab艂kowy?Which juice do you prefer orange or apple?
Kt贸ra ksi膮偶ka jest twoja?Which book is yours?
Kt贸re wino wolisz, bia艂e czy czerwone?Which wine do you prefer white or red?

Asking about things and people by using the words KTO and CO is a bit more complex as both pronouns change their forms depends on the case. You may read about it here.

 

ASKING ABOUT PURPOSES, REASONS AND WAYS

 

Ile kosztuje ten sweter?How much does the sweater cost?
Dlaczego nie jeste艣 w pracy?Why aren’t you at work?
Po co to kupi艂e艣?Why did you buy it? What did you buy it for?
Jak d艂ugo trwa ten film?How long is the film? How long does the film last?
Z jakiego powodu nie mo偶esz pojecha膰 na konferencj臋?For what reason can’t you go to the conference?

 

LET’S PRACITSE

If the exercise doesn’t work, you may find it here

 

 

VERBS OF MOTION: I艢膯, CHODZI膯, JECHA膯 I JE殴DZI膯

VERBS OF MOTION: I艢膯, CHODZI膯, JECHA膯 I JE殴DZI膯

Polish motion verbs: i艣膰, chodzi膰, jecha膰 i je藕dzi膰 confuse many students. Do you know how to use them correctly?

The verb i艣膰 means ‘to go’ in general (e.g. Id臋 do kina – I’m going to cinema) or ‘to go on foot’ (e.g. Id臋 na spacer – I’m going for a walk) and expresses one time action. The same meaning has the verb chodzi膰 but expresses rutine e.g. Chodz臋 do kina co tydzie艅 – I go to cinema every week; Chodz臋 na spacer codziennie – I go for a walk every day.
The verb jecha膰 means ‘to go by vehicle’ and expresses one time action e.g. Jedziemy do Polski – We’re going (traveling) to Poland whereas je藕dzi膰 expresses rutine e.g. Je藕dzimy do Polski co rok – We go (travel) to Poland every year.

 

Conjugation of the verbs: i艣膰, chodzi膰, jecha膰 and je藕dzi膰

 

Let’s practice

If the exercise doesn’t work you may find it here

 

 

 

MUSIE膯, WOLE膯, CHCIE膯 – Polish modal verbs

MUSIE膯, WOLE膯, CHCIE膯 – Polish modal verbs

Modal verbs聽 are used to express ability, obligation, possibility, and so on. They are always combine with other verbs. Below you may find the most useful Polish modals and their most common meanings.

 

 

In Polish we tend to use the verb musie膰 when in English you would rather use the verbs should or need.
M贸j komputer ledwie dzia艂a, musz臋 kupi膰 nowy. – My computer barely works, I need to (I should) buy a new one.

 

Conjugation of modal verbs

In the present tense we conjugate the modal verbs acording the patterns:
umie膰 (conjugation -m/-sz): (ja) umiem, (ty) umiesz, (on/ona) umie etc.
wole膰 (conjugation -臋/-isz): (ja) wol臋, (ty) wolisz, (on/ona) woli etc.
musie膰 (conjugation -臋/-isz): (ja) musz臋, (ty) musisz, (on/ona) musi, (my) musimy, (wy) musicie, (oni/one) musz膮
chcie膰 (conjugation -臋/-esz): (ja) chc臋, (ty) chcesz, (on/ona) chce etc.
m贸c (cojugation -臋/-esz): (ja) mog臋, (ty) mo偶esz, (on/ona) mo偶e, (my) mo偶emy, (wy) mo偶ecie, (oni/one) mog膮

Past tense forms are regular (except the verb m贸c):

Chcia艂em pojecha膰 do Hiszpani, ale nie mog艂em, bo musia艂em pracowa膰. – I wanted to go to Spain but I couldn’t because I had to work.
Rok temu nie umia艂am m贸wi膰 po polsku. – A year ago I couldn’t (didn’t know how to) speak Polish.

 

Conjugation of the verb ‘powinien’ is irregular:
(ja) powinienem聽 聽 聽 聽 聽 聽 聽 powinnam
(ty) powiniene艣聽聽聽聽聽 聽 聽 聽 聽 聽聽 powinna艣
(on) powinien 聽 聽 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 (ona) powinna聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 (ono) powinno
(my) powinni艣my 聽聽聽 powinny艣my
(wy) powinni艣cie聽聽聽聽聽聽 powinny艣cie
(oni) powinni 聽 聽 聽 聽 聽 聽 聽聽 (one) powinny

 

In modern Polish those forms are used regardless of whether the present, past or future is referred to. The tense is understood from the context of the conversation.

Powinienem sko艅czy膰 projekt. – I should finish the project.
Powinienem sko艅czy膰 projekt wczoraj. – I should have finished the project yesterday.

 

let’s practise

 

If the exercise doesn’t work, you may find it here

OGL膭DA艁EM TELEWIZJ臉, KIEDY ZADZWONI艁 TELEFON – verb aspect in Polish

OGL膭DA艁EM TELEWIZJ臉, KIEDY ZADZWONI艁 TELEFON – verb aspect in Polish

Aspect as a grammar category shows how actions are extended in time and whether they were completed or not. Ways the aspect can be expressed in languages are various. English for example uses complex tense system. In Polish aspect is expressed by different form of the same verb.

Let’s have a look at the examples:
Wczoraj gotowa艂em obiad. – Yesterday I was cooking a dinner.
Wczoraj ugotowa艂em obiad.聽 – Yesterday I cooked a dinner.
Ogl膮da艂am telewizj臋, kiedy zadzwoni艂 telefon. – I was watching TV, when the phone rang.

 

USAGE OF VERB ASPECT

 

As you may see in the exemples Polish imperfective verbs (gotowa膰, ogl膮da膰) corespond with English Past Continuous tense. In most cases that rule works but there are some exeptions. The picture below showes the usage of the aspect in Polish.

 

 

FORMATION OF ASPECTUAL PAIRS

There are few ways of creating aspectual pairs but predicting which one should be used with which verbs is almost imposible. Thus the best options is to learn aspectual pairs by heart. Here you can download a list of most commonly used verbs.

 

LET’S PRACTISE

Play ‘Who wants to be a millionaire’ to practice aspectual pairs.

 

 

If the game doesn’t work, you may find it here
Check if you understand when perfective and imperfective forms should be used.

 

If the exercise doesn’t work, you may find it here

 

 

M脫WI SI臉, 呕E WIDZIANO ICH RAZEM – impersonal constructions in Polish

M脫WI SI臉, 呕E WIDZIANO ICH RAZEM – impersonal constructions in Polish

The term ‘impersonal construction’ refers to a sentence with no grammatical subject. This is quite a foreign concept to English speaking learners, however there are some structures in Englishwhich play similar role.聽 Take the sentences with ‘one’ (One shouldn’t smoke here.), ‘you’ (You should keep the quiet here.) or ‘they’ (They say it’s going to be sunny tomorrow.) – the pronouns don’t refer to anyone in particular. Such sentenses in Polish can take numbers of forms. Let’s have a look at two the most popular constructions.

 

Tu si臋 nie pali – constructions with ‘si臋’

 

Very often to form an impresonal sentence we use a verb in third person singular聽 and add the reflexive pronoun ‘si臋

Tu si臋 nie paliOne cannot smoke here.
T臋 zup臋 gotuje si臋 bardzo szybko! – You can cook this soup quickly. This soup is easy to cook.
Dawniej pisa艂o si臋 listy a nie maile – In the past one/we wrote letters not emails.
W przysz艂o艣ci b臋dzie si臋 robi膰 zakupy tylko online. – In the future one will shop only online.

There are some sentences – expressed by the same structure- which translate in English diferently.

Dobrze si臋 czyta t臋 ksi膮偶k臋 – This book is well written. (lit. One reads this book well)
Przyjemnie si臋 spaceruje, kiedy jest 艂adna pogoda. – It is nice to walk when the weather is good.
Komputer si臋 zepsu艂. – The computer is broken. (lit. The computer broke itself.)

 

Ten dom zbudowano 15 lat temu – forms with the endings -no and -to

 

Another way to create impersonal forms is by adding to a verb the ending -no or -to instead of the personal endings.

If the stem of the verb ends in -a or -e we add the ending -no

pisa膰 – pisano,聽 my艣le膰 – my艣lano,聽 czyta膰 – czytano, rozumie膰 – rozumiano

 

If the stem of the verb ends in y/i or grup of consonant, the ending is -ono

uczy膰 – uczono,聽 bawi膰 si臋 – bawiono si臋,聽 ta艅czy膰 – ta艅czono, je艣膰 – jedzono

 

The ending -to is used when the stem ends in -膮 or -u, with one syllable verbs and some of the perfective forms of the verbs.

wynaj膮膰 – wynaj臋to, pi膰 – pito, odkry膰 – odkryto,my膰 – myto, wypi膰 – wypito

 

The forms with -no and -to translate in English to passive voice and can be used only in the past tense.

Szko艂臋 zbudowano trzy lata temu – The school was built 3 years ago.
Pytano mnie o to wczoraj. – I was asked about it yesterday.
Uczono go, 偶eby traktowa膰 kobiety z szacunkiem. – He was taught to treat women with respect.

 

In the title of this post you may see the sentence: M贸wi si臋, 偶e widziano ich razem. Do you understand now what it means?

 

LET’S PRACTISE

 

If the exercise doesn’t work, you may find it here

 

GDYBY BY艁A 艁ADNA POGODA, POSZLIBY艢MY DO PARKU – conditional in Polish, part II

GDYBY BY艁A 艁ADNA POGODA, POSZLIBY艢MY DO PARKU – conditional in Polish, part II

Reading the previous post you learned how to build conditional verbs. Let’s have a look now how to form conditional sentences to say or speculate about what will happen, would happen or what could have happened.

 

Gdybym mia艂a wi臋cej pieni臋dzy, kupi艂abym te buty.
If I had more money I would buy those shoes.

Widzia艂am wczoraj pi臋kne buty! Gdybym mia艂a wi臋cej pieni臋dzy, kupi艂abym je.
Yesterday I saw beautiful shoes. If I had had more money I would have bought them.

 

Note that in Polish the same sentence can refer to the past or the present, it depends on the context.

 

How to form conditional sentences?

 

Gdyby by艂a 艂adna pogoda, poszliby艣my do parku.

gdybygdy (if) plus the ending -bym, -by艣, -by, etc. depending on a subject of a sentence (here the subject is ‘pogoda’ therefore needs to be used the ending -by)
by艂athe past tense form of a verb (third person singular or plural, depends on a subject of a sentense)
poszliby艣myconditional verb

 

Note that the ending with particle -by- is used twice, which means that literal translation of this sentence is: If the weather would be nice, we would go to the park.

 

Few more examples. Can you tell which sentences refer to the past and which to the present?
Gdyby艣 wsta艂 wcze艣niej, nie sp贸藕ni艂by艣 si臋 na samolot.
Gdyby艣my mieli wi臋cej pieni臋dzy, pojechaliby艣my do Japonii.
Gdybym nie zapomnia艂 o jej urodzinach, nie by艂aby teraz taka smutna.
Na pewno mogliby艣cie zda膰 ten egzamin, gdyby艣cie tylko uczyli si臋 wi臋cej.
Nie musia艂bym teraz i艣膰 pieszo, gdybym nie sp贸藕ni艂 si臋 na autobus.

 

Future conditional forms

 

Previous sentences refer to the past and the present. The future conditional is formed by using the particule je艣li and the future tense (perfective or imperfective) and is used to talk about things which might happen in the future.

Je艣li b臋dzie 艂adna pogoda, p贸jdziemy do parku. – If the weather is nice, we will go to the park.
Je艣li zrobisz obiad, ja pozmywam. – If you cook today, I will do the dishes.

 

LET’S PRACTISE